Foundation for a Smoke-Free World

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The Foundation for a Smoke-Free World was established in September 2017.[1] The Foundation describes itself as “an independent, private foundation formed and operated free from the control or influence of any third party” and states that it “makes grants and supports medical, agricultural, and scientific research to end smoking and its health effects and to address the impact of reduced worldwide demand for tobacco”.[2]

The Foundation is funded by Philip Morris International (PMI) - the second largest tobacco company in the world,[1] and was formally launched at a tobacco-industry funded event, called the Global Tobacco and Nicotine Forum (GTNF).[3] The event was sponsored, among others, by Altria, British American Tobacco (BAT), Japan Tobacco International (JTI), and PMI.[4]

Visit Foundation for a Smoke-Free World: How it Frames Itself for a detailed analysis of how the ways in which the Foundation portrays itself and those who oppose it, plus the counter evidence to these portrayals.

Main Staff at the Foundation

Management

  • Derek Yach: leads the Foundation and is the former Head of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Tobacco Free Initiative.[5]
  • Tom Harding: is the Foundation's Chief Operating Officer and Chief Financial Officer.[5]
  • Farhad Riahi: is the Foundation’s Chief Health, Science and Technology Officer.[5] He was formerly partner at McKinsey consultancy according to his LinkedIn profile. [6]
  • Ehsan Latif: In November 2017, Latif was appointed the Program Director at the Foundation.[5] Latif formerly worked for the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, according to his LinkedIn profile.[7]
  • Heather Majewski: In February 2018, Majewski was appointed Vice President of Global Services at the Foundation.[5]
  • Jim Lutzweiler: is Vice President of Agriculture and Livelihoods at the Foundation, and former Senior Director of Global Public Policy at PepsiCo.[5]
  • Mica Wilson: is Vice President of Marketing and Communications at the Foundation.[5] She was formerly Director of Global health at PepsiCo.[8]

Board of Directors

  • Dyborn Chibonga is the regional head for Malawi and Mozambique at the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA). Chibonga was also on the Board of Directors of the African Institute of Corporate Citizenship (AICC) from 2010.[9]
  • Lisa Gable is a former US ambassador and chairman emeritus of the Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF), “a non-profit organization that aims to reduce obesity among children in the United States.” [5] The Board of Directors of the HWCF includes executives from Nestle, PepsiCo, Coca-Cola and General Mills.[10]
  • Martin Skancke is the founder and General Manager of Consulting, having previously worked for the Norwegian Ministry of Finance and consultancy firm McKinsey.[11]
  • Michael Sagner is a physician and chairman of the European Society of Preventive Medicine.
  • Zoe Feldman is the Managing Director at Almanac Investments, who previously worked for PepsiCo for eight years. [5]
  • Andrew MacLeod is co-founder of Brexit Advisory Services, Visiting Professor at King’s College London in War and Security Studies, and chair of Griffin Law.[12]
  • Pamela Parizek is also Managing Director at The Claro Group consultancy, according to LinkedIn. Parizek has previously worked for KPMG, and Kroll Inc.- a corporate investigations and risk consultancy firm.[13]

Other Key Staff

Other key staff include those who have previously worked for PepsiCo along side others who have worked for the World Health Organization and Cancer Research UK. Alastair Bradstock, previously Director of the International Tobacco Control Programme at Cancer Research UK, now works in the Health and Agriculture Team of the Foundation.[14] Brian Erkkila, the Foundation's Director of Regulatory Science, joined the Foundation after seven years at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Tobacco Products.[15]

In an open letter, Yach stated that the appointed Board of Directors “is subject to stringent conflicts of interest policy. No Board member can have ties to tobacco companies. The Directors will receive reimbursement for their expenses and a modest honorarium for their service”.[16] The appointed board have no known direct tobacco industry links. However, one board member has links to a consultancy firm, McKinsey, which has worked with Philip Morris and British American Tobacco in the past.[17][18][19] Also several members of staff and the board have links to Pepsi Co, where Yach was immediately prior to his current role at the FSFW.

Relationship with the Tobacco Industry

Funded by Philip Morris International but claims independence

At its inception in September 2017, the Foundation’s sole funder was PMI. Despite claims that it was “seeking and expects to receive funding from other sources as well”[20], as of June 2018, no other funders were listed on the Foundation’s website.[21]

The day after the Foundation’s launch, film director Aaron Biebert, (whose production company, Attention Era, was commissioned to create the launch video for the Foundation[22] and who is an advocate for the deregulation of and use of e-cigarettes to quit smoking[23]) claimed that “PMI will not be the only donor [of the Foundation]. He [Yach] will have other big donations coming from traditional sources like the Gates Foundation or Bloomberg Charities, but decided to get going now despite the potential reputational risk he faces”.[24]

This claim was swiftly rebutted by both the Gates Foundation and Bloomberg Philanthropies.[25][26]

PMI agreed to contribute US$80 million annually for the next 12 years starting from 2018, with specific contributions depending on the Foundation’s “requirements and operations”.[27] Although a large sum of money, US$80 million represents only 0.1% of PMI’s revenues and 1% of the company’s profits.[28] It is an insignificant sum compared to PMI’s annual spending on its longstanding sponsorship deal with Formula One racing giant Ferrari, which was quietly renewed in September 2017, and has previously been estimated to cost PMI in the region of US$160 million annually.[29][30]

The Foundation says that ‘independence’ and ‘transparency’ are its core values, and that the Foundation’s bylaws prevent PMI and other tobacco companies “from having any influence over how the Foundation spends its funds or focuses its activities”.[20] Tobacco control academic Stan Glantz accused the Foundation’s claim of independence to be “like all past industry front groups”.[28] A front group is an organisation that purports to represent one agenda while in reality serving some other party or interest. In a 2001 paper, which warned of the tobacco industry’s misuse of science, Yach argued that “the use of front groups and consultants is a well-established tobacco industry practice to avoid dealing with its lack of public credibility”.[31]

In a blog post published in the BMJ[32] Yach reasserted that the Foundation operates independently from PMI, citing The Foundation’s ‘Certificate of Incorporation’,[33] ‘Bylaws’[34] and ‘Pledge Agreement’ between the tobacco company and the Foundation[35] as evidence of this independence. The Foundation itself said it would operate “in a manner that ensures the Corporation’s freedom and independence from the influence of any commercial entity”.[34]

However, a McCabe Centre critique of these constitutive documents[36] argued that there were several ways in which PMI would be able to influence the Foundation’s research agenda and practice (see Table 1).


Table 1: Quotes from the Foundation’s constitutive documents and the McCabe Centre's critique of the Foundation’s claims of independence from PMI

Statement from Foundation McCabe Centre critique[36]
Certificate of Incorporation[33]

The Foundation’s purpose is to support “research and projects regarding alternatives to cigarettes and other combustible products and how best to achieve a smoke-free world and advance the field of tobacco harm reduction”.

This leaves no capacity for the Foundation to focus on other tobacco control measures such as “prevention of uptake or cessation of use without replacement by other products”
PMI Pledge Agreement with the Foundation[35]

PMI are only obliged to continue to fund the Foundation if it has not “rescinded, amended or modified the Foundation’s Purpose” and has worked “exclusively in accordance with the Foundation’s purpose”

“In other words, the cost of change – for example to focus on ending smoking other than through alternative products/harm reduction…would be the US960 million” pledged to the Foundation by PMI (or at least its outstanding balance). The pledged amount is therefore tied to the Foundation exclusively working on PMI-specified research priorities.
Bylaws[34]

“The Certificate of Incorporation and these Bylaws may be amended or repealed and new Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws may be adopted upon the affirmative vote of two-thirds (⅔) of the Directors then serving entitled to vote.”

i.e. It is possible for the Foundation to change its research priorities (at the cost of the significant funding pledged from PMI), but only if two-thirds of the Board of Directors backed a decision to do so. This board “will likely be a group inherently unrepresentative of the fields of tobacco control/public health,* as it is hard to imagine that it will include many (or any) individuals unsympathetic to the arrangement Yach has struck with Philip Morris.” A majority vote to change the Foundation’s research priorities is therefore unlikely.
  • Note to Table 1: On 1 February 2018 the Foundation announced its Board of Directors, which included individuals (e.g. Lisa Gable, Michael Sagner, and Zoe Feldman) promoting collaboration with industry.[37]

"Less as a Conflict of Interest than a Confluence of Interest"

In September 2017, Yach told UK newspaper The Guardian that “I have been working with PMI to establish a foundation to accelerate the end of smoking and tackle the consequences for tobacco farmers”.[38] Yach continued: “From the start, the intent has been to create an independent foundation that meets the very highest standards of legal and ethical norms”.

In January 2018, Yach gave an interview with the South African Broadcasting Corporation about the Foundation. When asked if PMI funding of the FSFW represented a conflict of interest, Yach replied: “I see it less as a conflict of interest than a confluence of interest in terms of trying to lower the public health impact (of tobacco products), which is really devastating at the moment”.[39] However, claims of a confluence of interest between PMI and public health goals are undermined by the tobacco company’s behaviour in other arenas. In July 2017, only one month before the establishment of the Foundation, news agency Reuters published internal PMI documents demonstrating the tobacco company’s attempts to subvert provisions in the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC).[40][41] Among other things, it showed the company had lobbied national governments to send non-health delegates to weaken FCTC provisions which usually require consensus to be adopted.[40] The documents also showed that PMI was violating India’s anti-smoking regulations by promoting cigarettes in colourful adverts and handing out free cigarettes at nightclubs and bars frequented by young people.[41]

An open letter to PMI dated 14 September 2017 and signed by 123 health groups urged the company, if it were serious about ‘designing a smoke-free future’, to “immediately cease the production, marketing and sale of cigarettes”.[42] PMI responded by an open letter claiming that if it were to stop selling cigarettes, smokers would not quit smoking but switch to its competitors’ brands.[43] “Indeed, our paramount business strategy is to replace cigarettes with less-harmful, smoke-free alternatives. That’s what we call a smoke-free future…". A smoke-free future that is not based on smoking cessation, but on smokers switching from cigarettes to another tobacco product.

The WHO stated in 2017 that “research and advocacy funded by tobacco companies and their front groups cannot be accepted at face value. When it comes to the Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, there are a number of clear conflicts of interest involved with a tobacco company funding a purported health foundation, particularly if it promotes sale of tobacco and other products found in that company’s brand portfolio. WHO will not partner with the Foundation. Governments should not partner with the Foundation and the public health community should follow this lead.”[44]

Using Consultancies and Law Firms with Long-Standing Links to Tobacco Industry

Many of the organisations the Foundation has worked with so far have long-standing links to the tobacco industry. For instance:

  • Feinstein Kean Healthcare: Tom Langford of PR consultancy Feinstein Kean Healthcare (FHK) was the spokesperson for the Foundation in September 2017.[45] FKH is part of the Ogilvy Group[46], a large PR firm which has had long-standing links with the tobacco industry, including running advertising and PR campaigns for the tobacco industry from the 1950s.[47] In the Foundation’s inaugural meeting of the board of directors in November, 2017, it was stated that Ogilvy FHK would be responsible for the Foundation’s “website launch, media outreach, stakeholder engagement and the global poll development and execution”[48]. In actuality, the ‘global poll’ which was the Foundation’s ‘State of Smoking’ survey, was carried out by another consultancy, Kantar Public.[2]
  • Kantar Public: Is part of Kantar, the consultancy and research group that conducted the Foundation’s 2018 ‘State of Smoking Survey’.[2] The group has regularly worked for the tobacco industry, and is also linked to the tobacco industry through its parent company WPP group.
  • McKinsey: The Foundation employed management consultants McKinsey in organising an October 2017 stakeholder event in London, despite the management consultancy being implicated in a 2017 corruption scandal in South Africa.[49][50] McKinsey has also helped tobacco companies with business planning going as far back as the 1950s, when McKinsey was advising Philip Morris on its research program.[51] In the 1980s, the firm advised Philip Morris USA how to optimise its cigarette sales and marketing processes.[17][18] In the 1990s, McKinsey worked with British American Tobacco.[19]
  • Baker and Hostetler LLP: In 2015, law firm Baker and Hostetler LLP represented tobacco companies Philip Morris, [[RJ Reynolds], Liggett and Lorillard in arbitration over proposed adjustments to the payments from the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement[52][53][54] In 2018, the Foundation for a Smoke-Free World stated that this same law firm had offered them ‘guidance and input’.[1]

Commissioning Evidence

  • In November 2017, the Foundation’s Board gave staff approval to make grants up to £2M up to March 2018 without Board approval.[48] The Foundation received 60 proposals in response to their first Call of Interest for Projects, and the Foundation was “to convene with grant-making experts and the strongest grant candidates in February 2018”.[55]
  • In March 2018 the Foundation published its first research output, a survey called ‘the State of Smoking’[56] by industry-linked Kantar. The survey focused on smoking prevalence rates across 13 different countries. Although ostensibly about understanding smoking in different countries, as the first step towards reducing smoking prevalence rates, it has been criticised by experts in public health, who have claimed that it actually works as a tool with which to gauge the market for harm reduction products and provide “market research for PMI”.[57]
  • In May 2018 it was reported that the Foundation was ‘in talks’ to work in collaboration with the International Centre for Biotechnology (a UNESCO Category II Centre) at the University of Nigeria Nsukka.[58]
  • The Global Forum on Nicotine (GFN) and Knowledge Action Change (KAC) launched the Tobacco Harm Reduction Scholarship programme in 2018, to fund research into tobacco harm reduction. This programme is sponsored by FSFW.[59] The programme awarded 15 projects up to a value of $7,500 each. For more detail see the page on Global Forum on Nicotine.

Other Projects

In March 2018, the Foundation launched its Agricultural Transformation Initiative in Malawi.[60] This project is headed by Jim Lutzweiler (Vice president of Agriculture and Livelihoods at FSFW). It is unclear what the project objectives are.

In 2017, the Foundation funded The Conrad Spirit of Innovation Challenge (in collaboration with the Conrad Foundation), which invited high-school students (aged 13-18 years old) to “design 21st century solutions to re-purpose global farmland that is currently used for tobacco production, especially in African countries”.[61][62] The Tobacco Control Research Group at the University of Bath contacted the Conrad Foundation to seek clarification of the nature of its sponsorship agreement with the FSFW.[63] The Conrad Foundation did not reply.

Speaking at Conferences & Events

The Foundation’s staff members have increasingly been raising the Foundation’s profile and messages. Examples of 2017/18 events at which the Foundation presented (or was scheduled to present):

  • In February, 2018 the African Institute of Corporate Citizenship (AICC) (whose self-stated aim is to ‘promote the role of business in development’)[64] collaborated with FSFW, holding ‘Consultative meetings’ in Malawi where, according to their Facebook page, stakeholders including government officials were due to meet with the Vice President of FSFW[65] Dyborn Chibonga, a member of the board of directors of FSFW also holds a role on the board of directors of AICC.[9]
  • The Brocher Foundation’s ‘Ethics of Global Population Health’ event: Yach was scheduled to speak at this five-day event hosted by the Brocher Foundation, from 28 May to 1 June 2018.[66] The Brocher Foundation states the event accepted “no funds from the tobacco industry or from any organizations supported by it”. On May 29th Yach was no longer listed as speaker on the Brocher Foundation’s website.[67]
  • Food Prize 2017: FSFW hosted a session at the World Food Prize (an event that Yach has spoken at previously[68]) in October 2017, titled ‘An Exploration Into Food/Cash Crop Alternatives to Tobacco in Africa’. A website description of the event states that:
    “Foundation for a Smoke-Free World was founded in part to identify and promote alternate market-driven agricultural supply and value chains, as well as fundamental livelihood alternatives for current smallholder tobacco farmers in Africa. To be successful, this will require a new vision grounded in emerging science-based research, collaboration among corporate and civil society stakeholders based on the formation of new business relationships, change of market and political incentives, alignment of interest with the tobacco industry, and support of governments.”[69]
  • Food and Drug Law Institute Annual Conference 2017: Yach gave a keynote address on ‘designing the future of tobacco control’ at this event in October 2017.[70][71]
  • 2017 E-Cigarette Summit: Yach attended this event in November 2017, and contributed to a discussion about FSFW during a session by Prof. Jean Francois Etter titled ‘The good, the bad and the ugly about the foundation for a smoke-free world’.[72] (Professor Etter noted he consulted Yach in preparation for his presentation)[73]

PMI’s Corporate Plan & Emergence of the Foundation for Smoke-Free World

Leaked PMI documents written in 2014 (and published by Reuters in 2018) give an insight into PMI’s long-term plans before the launch of the Foundation.[74] Although on its website PMI talks about a smoke-free future,[75] these internal documents reveal that as recently as 2014, PMI was maintaining its attempts to “maximise commercial opportunities and grow market share” of combustible cigarettes. [76]

This contrast seems to illustrate serious conflicts between PMI’s public and private stances on the future of its business activities,[74] something which only adds to the assessment of PMI’s funding of FSFW as a major conflict of interest. These leaked 2014 documents also go into detail about PMI’s perceived need to diversify into ‘RRPs’ because of concerns around the denormalization of cigarettes, and increased regulation of tobacco products.[74]

PMI expressed the need to be “part of the solution” and to “establish the legitimacy of tobacco companies to be part of the regulatory debate on RRPs” [76] One way in which PMI proposed to do this was through “third party coalition building” and utilisation of “an alliance of credible messengers”.[74] Since then, PMI has pledged 1 billion dollars to fund the work of the Foundation for Smoke-Free World. [77]

To read a longer article on PMI's 10 year plan and the subsequent establishment of the FSFW see: Big Tobacco is funding the anti-smoking lobby but leaked documents reveal the real reason why.

Further Calls to Reject Involvement with the Foundation

Further calls to reject funding from (and indeed any kind of involvement with) the Foundation have come from many sources including: The International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) | The World Heart Federation | Deans from the School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University | Environmental Rights Action and Friends of the Earth Nigeria (who have asked the University of Nigeria Nsukku not to work with FSFW) | Polish Ministry of Health (sent a letter to all Polish university medical schools urging them not to accept any funds from FSFW) | Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids | other experts in public health.[78][79]

Critics have specifically pointed out that PMI continues to actively oppose tobacco control policies aimed at reducing tobacco use, and promotes cigarettes to children in Africa and Asia.[78]

TobaccoTactics Resources

TCRG Research Blog

Relevant Link

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 , Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, About Us, accessed May 2018
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 D. Yach, The State of Smoking 2018 Global survey findings and insights, Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, Press Conference Presentation, 19 March 2018, accessed May 2018
  3. Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, Media Advisory: Foundation Forming to Eliminate Smoking Worldwide, 12 September 2017, accessed September 2017
  4. Global Tobacco & Nicotine Forum 2017 New York City, USA, September 12-14, 2017, accessed September 2017
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, Foundation leadership, 2018, accessed May 2018
  6. LinkedIn, Farhad Riahi, accessed May 2018
  7. LinkedIn, Ehsan Latif, accessed November 2017
  8. LinkedIn, Mica Wilson, accessed May 2018
  9. 9.0 9.1 African Institute of Corporate Citizenship, Board Members. Board Director: Dyborn Chibonga, 2016, accessed May 2018
  10. Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation, About, accessed March 2018
  11. Skancke Consulting, Experience: Martin Skancke, accessed May 2018
  12. LinkedIn, Andrew McLeod, accessed May 2018
  13. LinkedIn, Pamela Parizek, accessed May 2018
  14. LinkedIn, Alastair Bradstock, accessed May 2018
  15. Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, Staff, undated, accessed June 2018
  16. D. Yach, An open letter on the Foundation’s independence and governance, Foundation for a Smoke-Free World Blog, 11 January 2018, accessed February 2018
  17. 17.0 17.1 T. Beane, Final McKinsey Task Force Meeting, Truth Tobacco Industry Documents, 26 October 1988, Bates no: 2041161013-2041161014, accessed October 2017
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  22. Attention Era, A Billion Dollar Foundation, undated, accessed May 2018
  23. Vape Craft Incorporated, Interview with Aaron Biebert – A billion lives documentary, 23 April 2018, accessed May 2018
  24. A. Biebert, Email sent to undisclosed recipients on 14 September 2017 11:05pm titled “Dr. Derek Yach’s Billion Dollar Foundation Launches”
  25. K. Henning, Email to subscribers of FCA mailing list dated 15 September 2017 15:57:09, subject: Re: [fca_all] Fw: Derek Yach’s new foundation to support harm reduction research
  26. C. Lewis, Email to subscribers of FCA mailing list dated 15 September 2017 02:24, subject Re: [fca_all] Fw: Derek Yach’s new foundation to support harm reduction research
  27. D. Meyer, Philip Morris Pledges $1 Billion to Anti-Smoking Foundation, Fortune, 13 September 2017, accessed September 2017
  28. 28.0 28.1 S. Glantz, Derek Yach’s journey to the Dark Side is now complete, UCSF Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, 13 September 2017, accessed September 2017
  29. L. Edmondson, Ferrari renews Philip Morris partnership, ESPN, 4 September 2017, accessed September 2017
  30. Philip Morris renews Ferrari sponsorship on the quiet, ESPN, 14 May 2015, accessed September 2017
  31. D. Yach, S. Aguinaga Bialous, Junking Science to Promote Tobacco, American Journal of Public Health, 2001 November;91(11):1745-1748
  32. D. Yach, Building a Foundation to accelerate an end to smoking, 23 January 2018, BMJ opinion blog, accessed February 2018
  33. 33.0 33.1 State of Delaware, Secretary of State, Division of Corporations, Certificate of incorporation of Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, Inc, 8 September 2017, accessed February 2018
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 First amended and restated bylaws of Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, Inc, 19 September 2017, accessed February 2018
  35. 35.0 35.1 Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, Pledge Agreement between PMI Global Services Inc., a Delaware corporation, and Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, Inc., a non-profit, non-stock Delaware corporation, 9 January 2018, accessed February 2018
  36. 36.0 36.1 J. Liberman, The new Philip Morris-funded Foundation for a Smoke-Free World: independent or not?, McCabe Centre for Law & Cancer, 30 January 2018, accessed February 2018
  37. Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, About us: Board of Directors, accessed May 2018
  38. S. Boseley, Tobacco company launches foundation to stub out smoking, The Guardian, 13 September 2017, accessed September 2017
  39. SABC Digital News, Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, 2 January 2018, accessed February 2018
  40. 40.0 40.1 A. Kalra, P. Bansal, et al, Part 1: Inside Philip Morris’ campaign to subvert the global anti-smoking treaty, Reuters, 15 July 2017, accessed October 2017
  41. 41.0 41.1 A. Kalra, P. Bansal, et al, Part 2: Philip Morris takes aim at young people in India, and health officials are fuming, Reuters, 18 July 2017, accessed October 2017
  42. Open letter from 123 health groups to PMI, 14 September 2017, accessed October 2017
  43. Philip Morris International, Open Response to Letter of 14 September 2017 calling on PMI to stop selling cigarettes, 29 September 2017, accessed October 2017
  44. World Health Organization, WHO statement on Philip Morris funded Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, 28 September 2017, accessed May 2018
  45. Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, Contact Us, undated accessed September 2017
  46. Ogilvy FKH, Ogilvy Relationship, undated, accessed September 2017
  47. Ogilvy & Mather, Corporate Culture, accessed April 2013
  48. 48.0 48.1 Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, Minutes of the Inaugural Meeting of the Board of Directors, 3 November 2017, accessed May 2018
  49. J. Cotterill, M. Marriage, South African opposition sets sights on McKinsey. Financial Times, 13 September 2017
  50. J. Cotterill, M. Marriage, McKinsey drawn further into South Africa’s influence scandal. Financial Times, 28 September 2017
  51. A.C. Britton, Five Year Research Program- McKinsey Report, Truth Tobacco Industry Documents, 21 March 1957, Bates No: 1000304953-1000304956, accessed October 2017
  52. P. C. Maloney, Tobacco MSA panel wrongfully deducted over $127M from Pennsylvania’s settlement funds, 10 April 2015, Products Liability Law Daily, accessed May 2018
  53. Baker Hostetler, Professionals: Evan M. Mannering, Associate, accessed May 2018
  54. Baker Hostetler, Professionals: Elizabeth. B. McCallum, Partner, accessed May 2018
  55. Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, Inc., Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Board of Directors, 28 December 2017, accessed February 2018
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  61. Conrad Spirit of Innovation Challenge, Special 2017-2018 Category…Change the world today. Foundation for a smoke-free world, 2017, accessed February 2018
  62. Conrad Spirit of Innovation Challenge, Conrad Challenge Sponsors, 2017, accessed February 2018
  63. Tobacco Control Research group, Email to the Conrad Foundation dated 21 February 2018, 12:32
  64. African Institute of Corporate Citizenship, About AICC, accessed May 2018
  65. Foundation for a Smoke-Free World & African Institute for Corporate Citizenship, Smoke-Free World Consultative Meetings, Sunbird Capital Hotel, Malawi Facebook Event, 28 February 2018, accessed May 2018
  66. Bioethics.net, 2018 Brocher Academy in Global Public Health Event May 28th 2018 – 1st June, accessed May 2018
  67. Brocher Foundation, Events: 2018 Brocher Summer Academy in Population-level Bioethics, May 28 – June 1, 2018, accessed May 2018
  68. The World Food Prize, 2010 Speaker Biographies 2013, accessed February 2018
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  70. Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, Designing the Future of Tobacco Control, 27 October 2017, accessed February 2018
  71. Food and Drug Law institute, Tobacco Products Regulation and policy Conference: Last Year’s Agenda, Last updated 4 January 2018, accessed February 2018
  72. I. Gray,Reflections on The 5th Annual E-Cigarette Summit 2017, The Royal Society, 17th November 2017, undated, accessed February 2018
  73. J. Etter, The good, the bad and the ugly about the Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, 17 November 2017, accessed February 2018
  74. 74.0 74.1 74.2 74.3 A. Rowell, Big Tobacco is funding the anti-smoking lobby but leaked documents reveal the real reason why, 13 March 2018, The Conversation, accessed May 2018
  75. Philip Morris International, Designing a Smoke-Free Future, accessed May 2018
  76. 76.0 76.1 Philip Morris International, 10 year corporate affairs objectives and strategies, 2014, leaked document, accessed May 2018
  77. D. Meyer, Philip Morris pledges almost $1 billion to anti-smoking fight, 13 September, Fortune Health, accessed September 2017
  78. 78.0 78.1 R. Malone, S. Chapman, P. Gupta, et al, A ‘Frank Statement’ for the 21st Century?, Tobacco Control, blog piece, 19 September 2017, accessed September 2017
  79. S. Chapman. Tobacco giant wants to eliminate smoking…and pigs might fly. BMJ 2017;358:j4443 doi: 10.1136/bmj.j4443